Showing posts with label CBD. Show all posts
Showing posts with label CBD. Show all posts


Cannabis compound inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells


Cannabis compound inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells

Researchers in the United States have conducted a study showing that a cannabis plant compound inhibited infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human lung cells.

SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that continues to sweep the globe posing a threat to global public health and the worldwide economy.

Marsha Rosner from the University of Chicago in Illinois and colleagues found that cannabidiol (CBD) and its metabolite 7-OH-CBD potently blocked SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells.

The CBD inhibited viral gene expression and reversed many of the effects the virus has on host gene transcription.

The compound also induced the expression of interferons – cell signaling proteins that are produced by host cells as an early response to viral invasion.

Furthermore, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was up to an order of magnitude lower in a cohort of patients who had been taking CBD, compared with matched patients who had not been taking CBD.

“This study highlights CBD, and its active metabolite, 7-OH-CBD, as potential preventative agents and therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 at early stages of infection,” says Rosner and the team.

A pre-print version of the research paper is available on the bioRxiv* server, while the article undergoes peer review.

Rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for new treatments

Since the COVID-19 outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has led to more than 119.5 million infections and caused more than 2.64 million deaths.

Although recently-approved vaccines are now being rolled out in many countries, the virus is still spreading rapidly. Rosner and colleagues say this highlights the need for alternative approaches, particularly among populations with limited access to vaccines.

However, “to date, few therapies have been identified that block SARS-CoV-2 replication and viral production,” write the researchers.

More about SARS-CoV-2 and CBD

The SARS-CoV-2 virus primarily enters host cells through the binding of a surface viral protein called spike to the human host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

The viral genome is then translated into two large polypeptides that are cleaved by the viral proteases MPro and PLPro to produce the proteins required for viral replication, assembly, and budding.

Rosner and colleagues say that, although limited, some studies have reported that certain cannabinoids have antiviral effects against hepatitis C virus and other viruses.

Furthermore, an oral solution of CBD is already approved by the US food and Drug Administration for the treatment of epilepsy.

High Dose CBD usage in patients is significantly correlated with a reduction in COVID-19 positivity. Associations between reported cannabinoid medication use and COVID-19 test results among adults tested at the University of Chicago Medicine (total
High Dose CBD usage in patients is significantly correlated with a reduction in COVID-19 positivity. Associations between reported cannabinoid medication use and COVID-19 test results among adults tested at the University of Chicago Medicine (total n=93,565). P*: p-values of percent positivity of the specified patient population compared to percent positivity of all patients (10% COVID-19 positive among 93,565 patients). Middle right: 85 patients took CBD before their COVID test date. Upper right: 82 of the 85 patients took FDA-approved CBD (Epidiolex®) and were matched to 82 of the 93,167 patients (Matched Controls) with a nearest neighbor propensity score model that scored patients according to their demographics and their recorded diagnoses and medications from the two years before their COVID-19 test. P-values were calculated using Fisher’s exact test two-sided.

What did the current study involve?

To test the effect of CBD on SARS-CoV-2 replication, the researchers pretreated A549 human lung carcinoma cells expressing ACE-2 (A549-ACE2) with 0-10μM CBD for 2 hours before infecting them with SARS-CoV-2.

Analysis of the cells 48 hours later showed that CBD had potently inhibited viral replication in the cells.

Since CBD is often consumed as part of a Cannabis sativa extract, the team investigated whether other cannabinoids could also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially those with closely related structures.

Remarkably, the only agent that potently inhibited viral replication was CBD; limited or no antiviral activity was exhibited by the other structurally similar cannabinoids tested.

Furthermore, the CBD metabolite 7-OH-CBD, the active ingredient in the CBD treatment of epilepsy, also effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in the A549-ACE2 cells.

CBD effectively eliminated viral RNA expression

When the researchers assessed whether CBD might prevent proteolytic cleavage by Mpro or PLpro, they found CBD had no effect on the activity of either protease.

This led the team to hypothesize that CBD targets host cell processes.

Consistent with this hypothesis, RNA sequencing of infected A549-ACE2 cells treated with CBD for 24 hours revealed significant suppression of SARS-CoV-2-induced changes in gene expression.

The CBD effectively eliminated viral RNA expression, including RNA coding for the spike protein.

Both SARS-CoV-2 and CBD triggered significant changes in cellular gene expression, including the expression of several transcription factors.

Further analysis of host cell RNA showed that the virus-induced changes were almost completely reversed, but rather than the cells returning to a normal cell state, the CBD+virus-infected cells resembled those treated with CBD alone.

What about interferon signaling?

Given that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is known to suppress the interferon signaling pathway, the researchers tested whether CBD could suppress viral infection by introducing this pathway.

Some genes were induced by CBD in both the absence and presence of SARS-CoV-2, including genes that encode interferon receptors and mediators of the interferon signaling pathway.

In addition, CBD effectively reversed the viral induction of cytokines that can trigger a deadly hyperinflammatory response called the “cytokine storm” during the later stages of infection.

“Thus, CBD has the potential not only to act as an antiviral agent at early stages of infection but also to protect the host against an overactive immune system at later stages,” says Rosner and the team.

SARS-CoV-2 incidence was lower in patients who took CBD

Finally, the team assessed the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among 82 patients who had been prescribed CBD prior to SARS-C0V-2 testing and matched patients who had not been prescribed CBD.

Strikingly, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 was only 1.2% among the patients prescribed CBD, compared with 12.2% among the matched patients who had not been taking CBD.

“The substantial reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection risk of approximately an order of magnitude in patients who took FDA-approved CBD highlights the potential efficacy of this drug in combating SARS-CoV2 infection,” says Rosner and colleagues.

“We advocate carefully designed placebo-controlled clinical trials with known concentrations and highly-characterized formulations in order to define CBD’s role in preventing and treating early SARS-CoV-2 infection,” they conclude.  

*Important Notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:
Sally Robertson

Written by

Sally Robertson

Sally first developed an interest in medical communications when she took on the role of Journal Development Editor for BioMed Central (BMC), after having graduated with a degree in biomedical science from Greenwich University.





A new study indicates that the cannabinoid known as CBG, which is found within marijuana, may provide therapeutic benefits for the treatment of glioblastoma, which is an aggressive form of cancer that affects the brain and spinal cord. This news reinforces previous findings which indicate that cannabinoids THC and CBD may have therapeutic benefits for thwarting tumor growth in glioblastoma and a wider range of cancers.


The American Association of Neurological Surgeons cites glioblastoma as the most common form of malignant brain and central nervous system tumors, accounting for nearly half of all cases, with a prevalence of about 3 cases per 120,00 people. These tumors can form in the brain or spinal cord, and patients who contract this form of cancer have an approximate one-year survival rate of about 40 percent. Treatment of glioblastoma typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.

This multifaceted approach is needed because the cancer’s tendril-like tumors permeate deeply into brain tissue and are difficult to fully remove with surgery alone. Subsequent treatments with radiation and chemotherapy are employed to eliminate residual tumor tissue and slow new tumor growth. Because of the highly invasive nature of both chemotherapy and radiation treatments, any agent that might help slow tumor growth could provide benefits to the patient’s health and survival rate.

This is why the news of marijuana-derived cannabinoids’ potential benefits for slowing tumor growth are of significant interest to the medical community.

The authors of a 2018 study noted that because of poor response to current therapies:

The development of novel therapeutic approaches is urgently needed to improve the survival of the patients suffering this devastating disease. Previous observations by our group and others have shown that Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active ingredient of marijuana) and other cannabinoids including cannabidiol (CBD) exert anti-tumoral actions in several animal models of cancer, including gliomas cells.

(Glioblastoma is a grade IV glioma – meaning all glioblastomas are gliomas, but not all gliomas are glioblastomas.)


The medical community has increasingly acknowledged a range of potential benefits of medical marijuana in the treatment of cancers, including nausea suppression, appetite enhancement, pain relief, and the reduction of anxiety. More recently, there is also growing evidence to indicate that certain cannabinoids found within marijuana may play a role in slowing and, in some cases, reversing tumor growth in certain cancers, including brain cancers.

The cannabinoid THC was among the first to be studied for potential tumor mitigation. In 2006, the British Journal of Cancer reported on the results of a pilot study of nine patients suffering from recurrent glioblastoma multiforme who showed continued tumor development following the standard therapies of surgery and radiotherapy. Patients were administered various doses of THC directly into tumors. At the 24-week mark, tumor-cell proliferation was inhibited in two of the nine patients.

A subsequent study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation in 2009 reported on the ability of THC to induce human glioma cell death. The authors stated that:

THC can promote the autophagic death of human and mouse cancer cells and provide evidence that cannabinoid administration may be an effective therapeutic strategy for targeting human cancers.

Studies have also shown that a combination of THC and CBD can serve as a complementary therapy to the drug temozolomide (TMZ), which is currently considered to be the most effective agent for the treatment of glioblastoma. The study authors report:

Our results show that oral administration of Sativex-like extracts (containing THC and CBD at a 1:1 ratio) in combination with TMZ produces a strong antitumoral effect.

And go on the conclude that:

The combined administration of TMZ and oral cannabinoids could be therapeutically exploited for the management of glioblastoma.


Until recently, THC and CBD have been the primary cannabinoids investigated for potential anti-tumor effects in a range of cancers. By contrast, the cannabinoid CBG has historically received relatively little attention, despite early indications of its ability to effect significant anti-tumor activity on melanoma cells in laboratory conditions. Only recently have a range of studies identified CBG as a potential agent for cancer therapies ranging from colorectal cancer to bone and stomach cancers.

One of the most important findings to date comes from a study published in the February 2021 edition of the peer-reviewed journal, Cells.

The study was conducted at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, with research performed on biopsied glioblastoma tumor cells and glioblastoma stem cells taken from patients suffering from this form of cancer. The anti-tumor effects of various combinations and concentrations of THC, CBD, and CBG were tested, as well as combinations of these cannabinoids with temozolomide.

When administered singly or in combination with CBD, CBG was shown to mitigate the resistance of glioblastoma to current chemotherapy agents, thereby rendering these agents more efficacious, and resulting in a higher degree of apoptosis (cellular death) of glioblastoma cells.

The authors noted that a combination of CBG and THC:

Reduced the viability of both types of cells to a similar extent [resulting in significant glioblastoma cellular death].

They also noted that CBG:

Inhibited glioblastoma invasion in a similar manner to the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide.

Study results indicated that CBG inhibited up to 90 percent of invasive tendril development by glioblastoma cells, as compared to a 50 percent inhibition by the chemotherapy drug. This is an important development, as the highly-invasive nature of glioblastoma cell tendrils is one of the chief reasons why this form of cancer is difficult to treat.

The study also points out the advantages of CBG as a non-intoxicating alternative to THC, noting that:

THC has little added value in combined-cannabinoid glioblastoma treatment, suggesting that this psychotropic cannabinoid should be replaced with CBG in future clinical studies of glioblastoma therapy.

There are also some indications that CBG may excerpt similar influences as THC and CBD on appetite stimulation and the reduction of nausea associated with chemotherapies.

In their concluding remarks, the authors stated:

We found CBG to effectively impair the relevant hallmarks of glioblastoma progression, with comparable killing effects to THC and in addition inhibiting the invasion of glioblastoma cells. Moreover, CBG can destroy therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem cells, which are the root of cancer development and extremely resistant to various other treatments of this lethal cancer.

As new developments in the therapeutic use of CGB and other cannabinoids for the treatment of cancer are reported, CannaMD will continue to provide updates and insights on this important line of research.


At CannaMD, we make it our priority to help patients stay up-to-date on the latest studies and regulations relating to medical marijuana. We’re happy to provide you with the resources and professional advice you need to navigate the ever-changing landscape of medical marijuana treatment!


Federally Legalize Marijuana Has Officially Been Introduced

The ‘420 Bill’ to Federally Legalize Marijuana Has Officially Been Introduced

The '420 Bill' to Federally Legalize Marijuana Has Officially Been Introduced

A federal bill that would legalize cannabis and regulate it like alcohol was introduced in the Senate on Friday by Democratic Sen. Ron Wyden of Oregon. The bill, the Marijuana Revenue and Regulation Act, has been designated as S. 420 by Wyden and is a companion measure to H.R. 420, which was introduced in the House of Representatives by fellow Oregon Democrat Rep. Earl Blumenauer last month.
A Democratic aide to the Senate Finance Committee, where Wyden is the ranking member, said that the bill aims to “responsibly legalize, tax, and regulate marijuana at the federal level,” according to media reports. Wyden said in a press release on Friday that now is the time for cannabis reform at the national level.
“The federal prohibition of marijuana is wrong, plain and simple. Too many lives have been wasted, and too many economic opportunities have been missed,” Wyden said. “It’s time Congress make the changes Oregonians and Americans across the country are demanding.”
Blumenauer agreed, noting that voters’ opinions on cannabis have changed and that their representatives in Congress should follow suit.
“Oregon has been and continues to be a leader in commonsense marijuana policies and the federal government must catch up,” said Blumenauer. “The American people have elected the most pro-cannabis Congress in American history and significant pieces of legislation are being introduced. The House is doing its work and with the help of Senator Wyden’s leadership in the Senate, we will break through.”

Bill is Part of Legislative Package

S. 420 is part of a package of bills intended to reform federal cannabis policy dubbed by Wyden and Blumenauer as the Path to Marijuana Reform. The other measures in the package, the Small Business Tax Equity Act and the Responsibly Addressing the Marijuana Policy Gap Act. The Small Business Tax Equity Act would repeal provisions of the tax code that deny cannabis businesses the right to take the same tax deductions as companies in other industries.
The Responsibly Addressing the Marijuana Policy Gap Act would remove federal criminal penalties and civil asset forfeiture for individuals and businesses complying with state law. The bill would also give cannabis businesses legal under state law access to banking, bankruptcy protection, marijuana research, and advertising. The bill includes an expungement process for some marijuana convictions which will reduce some of the collateral damage of the War on Drugs, including the denial of federal housing and financial aid. The bill also gives veterans access to legal medical marijuana programs and protects Native American tribes from prosecution under federal cannabis laws.


CBD Market Explodes, Despite Perplexing Legal Status

CBD Market Explodes, Despite Perplexing Legal Status

CBD is nonpsychoactive, nonaddictive, does not produce a "high" and has few to no dangerous side effects
In states where CBD is becoming widely used, there are also few reports of negative social or medical consequences; in fact, CBD has been shown to provide valuable benefits for those struggling with opioid addiction
While the sale of CBD products has exploded into a $390 million per year industry and is projected to hit $1.3 billion by 2022, there’s still a lot of confusion around the federal legality of CBD commerce in the U.S.
Hemp was legalized under the 2018 Farm Bill, and FDA has reclassified CBD as a Schedule 5 drug with low risk of addiction. However, since FDA has approved a CBD-only drug, CBD is no longer recognized as a dietary supplement and cannot legally be sold as such
There’s need for quality control; in one study, 26.19% of 84 CBD products tested contained less CBD than advertised, and 42.85% of them contained more. Only 30.95% were accurately labeled

Production of cannabis is booming as the medical benefits of CBD (cannabidiol) are increasingly recognized. According to Project CBD, at least 50 conditions are believed to be improved by CBD, including pain, seizures, muscle spasms, nausea associated with chemotherapy, digestive disorders, degenerative neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, mood disorders, anxiety, PTSD and high blood pressure.
CBD is non psychoactive, nonaddictive, does not produce a "high" and has few to no dangerous side effects. In states where CBD is becoming widely used, there are also few reports of negative social or medical consequences, in fact, CBD has been shown to provide valuable benefits for those struggling with opioid addiction.
At the end of 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration modified the Schedule 1 classification for some CBD products, downgrading CBD products from cannabis that contain no more than 0.1%tetrahydrocannabinols (THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis) to Schedule 5, which lists drugs considered to have a lower potential for abuse than other controlled drugs.
The popularity of CBD has exploded in recent years. As noted in a May 14, 2019, New York Times article:
“ … [C]annabidiol is everywhere. We are bombarded by a dizzying variety of CBD-infused products: beers, gummies, chocolates and marshmallows; lotions to rub on aching joints; oils to swallow; vaginal suppositories … CVS and Walgreens each recently announced plans to sell CBD products in certain states.”

Discovery of the Human Endocannabinoid System

The New York Times, which covers a lot of ground in its article, goes on to recount some of the history of how scientists discovered what cannabis can do for the human body. In the early 1960s, a chemist named Raphael Mechoulam became the first to map the chemical structures of CBD and THC.
In the 1980s, a St. Louis University Medical School scientist named Allyn Howlett identified the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the human brain. We now know there are two types of cannabinoid receptors in the human body, CB1 and CB2, and while CB1 is typically thought of as being primarily in the brain and CB2 primarily in the immune system, both types of receptors are in fact found throughout your body.
We also know the body produces endogenous cannabinoids that influence these receptors, and that this endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in human health, as it regulates homeostasis by orchestrating communication between your bodily systems, such as your respiratory, digestive, immune and cardiovascular systems.
Mechoulam published his discovery of the first endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, which attaches to the same sites as THC, in 1992. As you’d expect, the discovery of the ECS led to drug developments targeting CB receptors.
Results, however, were less than fruitful — turns out there are few truly safe alternatives to cannabis (or hemp, which also contains CBD, but very little if any THC). As reported by The New York Times,Sanofi’s weight loss drug Rimonabant, which blocked CB1 receptors, was pulled off the market after just two years, after reports of depression and suicide attempts related to the drug emerged.
The episode seems to exemplify endocannabinoids’ importance to our sense of well-being and the difficulty of manipulating them therapeutically. Attempts to increase native cannabinoids with synthetic drugs have fared no better.
In 2016, French scientists halted a study of a drug designed to boost endocannabinoids. For reasons that remain unclear, six patients who took the medicine, meant to treat pain, were hospitalized. One died,” The New York Times writes.

How CBD Affects Your Body

While there’s still a lot we don’t know about the exact workings of CBD, research suggests it interacts with many different systems in the body. For example, it increases the number of endogenous cannabinoids, binds to serotonin receptors and stimulates GABA receptors, all of which play roles in mood.
“With more than 65 cellular targets, CBD may provide a kind of full-body massage at the molecular level,” The New York Times states, adding, “this biochemical promiscuity is one reason CBD seems so medically promising,” especially when it comes to neurology, as CBD’s ability to re-establish homeostasis appears particularly beneficial for the brain.
While the featured New York Times article centers around the story of a mother seeking to find a medical solution for her son who has severe epilepsy, it also touches on many other medical uses, including current research investigating the use of CBD as a prophylactic to prevent schizophrenia.
Early warning signs of schizophrenia include episodes of delusions, during which the patient is still aware that the experiences aren’t real. A study published in 2018 found giving these patients a single 600-milligram dose of CBD helps to normalize some of the abnormal function in the parahippocampal, striatal and midbrain areas that occur during a schizophrenic episode.

Cannabis Products May Be an Answer to the Opioid Epidemic

While THC is psychoactive (creates a “high”), CBD has been shown to counteract the effects of THC. Many cannabis varieties used for recreational purposes, however, have been bred for exceptionally high THC content, which is why recreational marijuana use has become associated with some of the more negative effects of THC.
A study on black-market marijuana published in 2016 revealed the THC potency of illicit marijuana has “consistently increased over time since 1995 from ~4% in 1995 to ~12% in 2014,” while “cannabidiol content has decreased on average from ~.28% in 2001 to <.15% in 2014.”
This means the overall change in the THC to CBD ratio has shifted from 14-to-1 to about 80-to-1 over the past couple of decades. Older varieties of cannabis had a ratio closer to 1-to-1.
What’s more, while THC has been shown to trigger heroin-seeking behavior, CBD has been found to do the complete opposite, which is why CBD is now being investigated as an aid to end addiction to opioids.
The research, The New York Times states, “indicates that CBD might help recovering opioid addicts avoid relapse, perhaps the greatest challenge they face … And because it’s not habit-forming … CBD might be a badly needed new weapon with which to fight an epidemic that claims more than 130 lives daily in the United States.”
A recent study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry confirms the benefits of CBD for this use yet again, finding:
“Acute CBD administration, in contrast to placebo, significantly reduced both craving and anxiety induced by the presentation of salient drug cues … CBD also showed significant protracted effects on these measures 7 days after the final short-term (3-day) CBD exposure.
In addition, CBD reduced the drug cue-induced physiological measures of heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. There were no significant effects on cognition, and there were no serious adverse effects.”
THC is not all bad though. Certain kinds of pain respond better to THC than CBD, and research has shown cancer patients who use cannabis need fewer opioids to manage their pain. THC also appears to be less toxic to older brains, and has been shown to actually rejuvenate the aging brain and reduce plaque buildup associated with Alzheimer’s.
States that have legalized medical cannabis also report fewer opioid-related deaths. Research published in 2014 showed that, on average, opioid overdose mortality in these states is 24.8% lower than in states that do not have medical cannabis laws, and that mortality rates from opioids continue to decline over time.

Current Cannabis Drugs

At present, there are two cannabis-related drugs on the market. The first, Marinol, contains synthetic THC and is prescribed for the suppression of nausea and appetite stimulation.
The second, Epidiolex, approved by the FDA in June 2018, is the first CBD-only drug derived directly from the cannabis plant. The featured New York Times article details the behind-the-scenes story of how this drug was developed and brought to market.
The FDA’s downgrading of CBD with minimal THC content to a Schedule 5 drug was in direct response to its approval of Epidiolex, which is approved for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, two rare forms of epilepsy.
As explained by The New York Times, the impetus behind the development of this particular drug was two mothers who were experimenting with CBD as treatment for their children’s epilepsy and then got GW Pharmaceuticals involved.
"'In the modern era, it’s certainly the most striking example of a drug that has gone from patient use to drug development,' Ken Mackie, a neuroscientist at Indiana University, told me.
And it’s unlikely to be the last such example. Because so many people already use cannabis and think it helps, patients might be, in effect, pioneering new uses through self-experimentation,"Moises Velasquez-Manoff writes in The New York Times, adding:
"[M]any who have direct experience with CBD, including a few scientists, do not think it should be available only by prescription. They point out that long before the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, which made marijuana illegal, people used the plant medicinally. Cannabis should not only take its place as an F.D.A.-approved drug, they contend. It should also reclaim its role as a folk remedy."

Quality Control Is an Issue

While it seems clear CBD can be beneficial for a range of health issues, quality and dosing are important issues that cannot be overlooked. It’s also important to understand that it may not work for everyone.
Dr. Elizabeth Thiele, an epileptologist at Harvard, told The New York Times some children experience mood changes on some nonprescription CBD products, and that it can interfere with other medications by changing the rate at which your body breaks them down.
The need for more stringent quality control has already been demonstrated in studies showing 26.19% of 84 CBD products tested contained less CBD than advertised, and 42.85% of them contained more. Only 30.95% were accurately labeled.
An earlier study found many medical cannabis products sold in dispensaries in California and Washington contained very little CBD, and only 17% were accurately labeled with regard to THC and CBD content; 23% were under labeled and 60% were over labeled with respect to THC. According to the authors:
“The median THC:CBD ratio of products with detectable CBD was 36:1, 7 had ratios of less than 10:1, and only 1 had a 1:1 ratio. Edible cannabis products from 3 major metropolitan areas, though unregulated, failed to meet basic label accuracy standards for pharmaceuticals.
Greater than 50% of products evaluated had significantly less cannabinoid content than labeled, with some products containing negligible amounts of THC. Such products may not produce the desired medical benefit.
Other products contained significantly more THC than labeled, placing patients at risk of experiencing adverse effects. Because medical cannabis is recommended for specific health conditions, regulation and quality assurance are needed.”
As of January 16, 2019, new cannabis regulations took effect in California, which include more stringent quality controls. As a result, patients are more likely than ever to get what they pay for from licensed dispensaries in the state. Quality controls include testing for microbes, pesticides and heavy metals.
Heavy metal testing is particularly important for hemp-based CBD products, as the plant is known to extract heavy metals from the soil. In fact, it’s frequently used for bioremediation purposes, which is great if the hemp is used for rope, fuel and other non medical uses.
When made into medicine, however, this soil-cleansing feature could pose significant problems, as it must be grown in clean soil. As a general rule, I recommend seeking out certified organic CBD products to ensure the least amount of contamination with pesticides and other harmful agricultural contaminants.

Legality of CBD Commerce Remains Confusing

While the sale of CBD products has exploded into a $390 million per year industry and is projected to hit $1.3 billion by 2022, there’s still a lot of confusion around the federal legality of CBD commerce in the U.S.
As noted by STAT News, “You wouldn’t know it from their widespread availability on the internet, in health food shops, and increasingly in major retailers, but CBD dietary supplements are technically illegal.” The reason for this is because the FDA still has not clarified whether CBD should be considered a drug or a supplement.
Hemp can now be grown and sold legally per the 2018 Farm Bill, but according to the FDA, CBD from hemp “is still technically illegal as a dietary ingredient,” New Hope Network points out. By approving a CBD-only drug (Epidiolex), CBD cannot — per FDA rules — be sold as a supplement, even if it’s derived from legal hemp.
“Lawyers, however, maintain the law is less clear for CBD products marketed as hemp extract, because hemp has been in the food supply long before drug makers started doing CBD clinical trials,” STAT News says. For now, FDA has not aggressively gone after CBD products — limiting their action to gong after those making unsubstantiated disease claims — but they could, and this makes many doctors nervous.
“J. Michael Bostwick, a psychiatrist at the Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minn., who has written about cannabis, calls the hodgepodge of conflicting rules regarding cannabis ‘idiotic,’”Velasquez-Manoff writes.
“He told me that even physicians willing to oversee patient cannabis use, who live in states where it’s legal, can be reluctant to do so because it remains illegal under federal law.
A doctor’s license to practice medicine comes from the state, but because the license that allows doctors to prescribe medicine is federal, involvement with cannabis could lead to revocation of that license. ‘There’s a lack of clarity about what playing field we’re on,’ Bostwick says.”

What Will the Future of CBD Regulations Hold?

While making CBD products an FDA approved drug is one solution, it’s by far not the only one, Velasquez-Manoff notes in his New York Times article. Quality can be ensured in other ways.
In Germany, for example, medical marijuana is overseen by a federal agency responsible for making sure all products are pharmaceutical grade. The Canadian company Tilray also produces medical-grade cannabis products and flowers and ships to any location where they’re federally legal (which currently excludes the U.S.). According to STAT News:
“[T]he FDA is considering whether it can write a new regulation that would carve CBD out of the existing law. The agency has set up a CBD working group headed by the agency’s principal deputy commissioner, Dr. Amy Abernethy, and the agency’s principal associate commissioner for policy, Lowell Schiller.
The group will be tasked with answering that question. And that same question is sure to loom large at the agency’s May 31 public meeting on CBD — the first of its kind.
‘A key of goal of our upcoming hearing and associated public docket is to identify and collate all available data to help us answer these questions in order to make sure that the American public is protected – including to the extent CBD is being introduced into our food supply or other common consumer products,’ FDA’s Felberbaum said.
It’s entirely new territory for the government. ‘We’ve never done this before,’ Gottlieb said in March. And Gottlieb has warned that the FDA’s process could take longer than three years — a lengthy timeline for an industry that has already seen such rapid growth.
In the meantime, he’s pushed Congress to step in and solve the problem more quickly. ‘The most efficient way to get to a pathway would be through legislation,’ Gottleib said in March. ‘Probably that would just be legislation that would specifically address CBD.’”
The need for clarity was recently highlighted when a 69-year-old woman was arrested and spent 12 hours in jail after Disney World security found CBD oil in her purse. The woman said she used it to alleviate arthritis pain. CBD is legal in her home state of North Carolina, widely available in stores across Florida, and she also had a doctor’s note for the CBD oil.
While the drug charges against her were dropped, the question of whether she should have been arrested in the first place loom large. The woman’s attorney has stated he will pursue legal action against Orange County Sherriff’s office and Disney World for “illegal detention, false arrest and violation of her civil rights.”
Who knows, if that case moves forward, it may prompt some clarity or set some kind of legal precedent. Until then, it’s important to realize that even though CBD products are readily available, from a federal standpoint, they’re illegal, so it would be wise not to travel with them.
Feeling lethargic or unproductive lately? You may want to look at your sleep habits. Getting enough high-quality sleep is a major factor in improving your mood and overall health. Yet a lot of people fall short on it, increasing their risk for various health problems.
If this is an issue you’re struggling with, Sleep 101 is a guide you just might need. This page will open your eyes to the health benefits of sleep and give you tips on how to get enough. Discover how you can cultivate an environment that will help you to drift off to dreamland easily, so you will always wake up feeling refreshed and invigorated.


  ЯМР НА ГРЪБНАЧНИЯ СТЪЛБ И ВЪЗМОЖНИ ЗАБОЛЯВАНИЯ НА ВЪТРЕШНИТЕ ОРГАНИ Съвременната медицина е доказала връзката между увреждането на отделни...